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Basketball Free-throws Statistical Tracking


About Basketball Free-throws Statistical Tracking

by Prof. Roberto Azar - January 31, 2012

A free throw attempt (FTA) is registered in favor of  a player when that player shoots a free throw except on the condition there is a violation by a defensive player and the shot misses.


eBA Statistical Tracking: a player will not be charged for a FTA that is determined by the illegal actions of an opponent, except under the circumstances that  the shot results in a free throw made (FTM).

A FTM is awarded to a player any time a free throw attempt by that player results in a score of one point  being credited.

If there is a violation during the free throws, the statistician should very distinctly note what the officials are awarding, who the violation was called on and what the result of the call is.

eBA Statistical Tracking: when a defensive team player perpetrate a violation
a ) if the free throw is successful; and
b ) if the free throw misses.

a ) if the free throw is successful, the score will count in contempt the defensive violation= register a FTA and a FTM in favor of the free throw shooter.


b ) if the free throw misses, do not charge the free throw shooter with a
FTA because officials will give a substitute free throw. The lost free throw
on which the violation occurred as it is invalidated by the defensive
player's violation must be disregarded.

Never the less, the eBA Basketball Statistics Creative Analysis System records this FT missed in the "play-by-play" record in order to compute the grand totals for the shooting analysis.

eBA Statistical Tracking: record a FTA (and a FTM if successful) for the substitute free throw.

When the free throws shooter commits a violation:

- if the free throw is made, it will be declared null.
- if the free throw is the last of a series, the defensive team will be awarded a possession out-of-bounds.

The free throws shooter commits a violation:

- when the ball fails to strike the ring;
- when the shooter takes more than 5 seconds to attempt the shot;
- when the shooter steps on or over the free throw line before the ball strikes the ring;
- when the shooter fakes a free throw.

eBA Statistical Tracking: In all cases a FTA - Free Throw Attempt - is charged to the shooter, regardless of whether the free throw is the first, second or third of a series.
If the free throw is the last of a series, the defensive team will be credited with a team rebound.

When a teammate of the free throws shooter commits a violation:

The referees will not declare null a successful free throw when an
offensive player transgress.

eBA Statistical Tracking: record a FTA and FTM to the free throw shooter.

- If the free throw misses and an offensive player transgress:

eBA Statistical Tracking: the free throw shooter is still charged with a FTA, because had the shot been made, it would have counted.

- If the last free throw of a series is missed and an offensive player transgress:

eBA Statistical Tracking: the defensive team will be awarded possession-out-of-bounds and credited with a team rebound.

Statements for the basketball statistician in summary:

- if it is given a substitute free throw because of a defensive player's violation: dismiss the original missed free throw and record the statistics for the substitute free throw.

- if an offensive player - including the shooter - commits a violation, record a FTA.

To resume this topic, we must remark that in ALL the situations referred earlier, NO turnover have happened because the offensive team is considered to have made an attempt at a free throw goal . To make clear this instance see the definition of "Turnover" in the eBA Global Basketball Encyclopedia and the related topics in the
Statistics Discussions
.

eBA Statistical Tracking: Don't charge turnover in ANY case.

If a wrong player is attempting a free throw, the FTA - Free Throw Attempt - as result of the error and all activeness implied in this action and place shall be declared null unless there are  a technical, unsportsmanlike or disqualifying fouls called during the activity after the error. The game will be began anew after the rebuke for making the mistake.

eBA Statistical Tracking: All FTA o FTM credited to the incorrect shooter shall be cancelled.

If a technical foul has resulted in free throws being taken immediately before the start of a period, the FTA and the potential FTM should be counted in the new period.

eBA Statistical Tracking: The statistician will refer this action in the  analysis as a foul committed during the interval of the game and penalized as if it had occurred during the quarter that follows the break.


• About the Formula:

Free Throw Modifier: Basketball analysts express statistics in terms of possessions, so they need to make an adjustment for the fact that two free throws do not always constitute a possession. Three-point plays, three-shot fouls, and technical all increase the number of free throws per possession. Therefore, those analysts need to use something less than 0.5 when multiplying by free throws to calculate possessions and revealed that the appropriate multiplier is 0.44.
The eBA System doesn't uses "Free Throw Modifier" but the exact number of times reached the line by each team and player.


• Studies and Research:

Numerical Analysis of the Basketball Shot
by Larry Silverberg, Chau Tran, and Kit Adcock


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (Revised April 21, 2003)

This paper numerically analyzes the dynamics of the Basketball shot. The focus of the paper is on the development of a general formulation for the dynamics of the shot beginning when the ball leaves the shooter's hand and ending when the shot is made or missed. The numerical analysis developed in

this paper can be used to conduct a parametric study of the dynamics of the Basketball shot, which in turn, can be used to improve individual shooting and team strategy. The individual skill level of the shooter enters the formulation through the statistical accuracy of the release. The paper then shows how to determine the shooter's probability of making a given shot... Read More....

Examining movement variability in the Basketball free-throw action at different skill levels
by Thomson Gale


The analysis of variability both within and between performers can reveal important information about how athletes satisfy situational constraints.
Transitory changes in the Basketball free-throw shot were examined across different stages in skill development. Six female Basketball players were selected, representing a range of playing expertise ( pretest: 0-90% baskets scored ).

Each participant was video recorded performing 30 shots. Contrary to predictions, there was not a clear pattern of a reduction in trajectory variability with increasing skill level. However, improvements in skill level were associated with an increasing amount of intertrial movement consistency from the elbow and wrist joints. It is suggested that the angular motions of the elbow and wrist joints were compensated for each other toward the end of... Read More....

Rhythmicity, ritual, and motor performance: a study of free throw shooting in Basketball
by Dan Southard and Andrew Miracle


The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of timing during an auto-communicative ritual to successful performance. Eight members of a university varsity Basketball team served as subjects for this study. Each subject performed 15 free throws in each of four different conditions.
Condition 1 required subjects to use their standard free throw ritual prior to shooting. Condition 2 required subjects to maintain the relative timing of ritual behaviors but reduce the absolute time of the ritual by one-half.

Condition 3 required that relative timing be maintained but that the absolute time of the ritual be be doubled. Condition 4 required the same behaviors and the same absolute time as the standard ritual but that the relative time...
Read More....

Stunting from the free-throw line
by Thomson Gale


When you consider how many Basketball games are won or lost by four points or less every year, you can understand why coaches are always looking for a way to pick up those few extra points.

One of the ways I have been doing this over the years is through a series of stunts off our free throw.

Since we cannot make all of them, we are always looking for a way to rebound and score on our misses. ...
Read More....


• From Another Point of View: The Sports Psychology

In one of the most popular sports internationally, Basketball, the game can be won or lost by one point. One free-throw can be worth THAT one point. To date, very little research has been directed toward free-throw shooting and its relationship to proper bio-mechanic and self-efficacy in the field of Sports Psychology.


Most free-throw shots are awarded to a player after being fouled by an opponent. It can be argued that free throw shots can determine the outcome of a Basketball game. Poor free-throw shooting can be seen among players at both professional and non-professional playing levels.

In the game of Basketball, there are many models for a player to imitate for example Michael Jordan, Kobe Bryant or Shaquille O'Neal. It can be assumed that the player is following the observational learning process (OLP).

The concept of the OLP is that a behavior is performed; the observer can gain knowledge and may change their behavior.

A pilot study made by Betty Crawford show us that very little attention has been given to the relationship between a player's psychological self-efficacy and their bio-mechanics to improve their number of successful free-throw shots.  The following study points to implication for further research to determine the effectiveness of combining the recommended bio-mechanics for shooting free-throws and the enhancement of a player's self efficacy to improve their free-throw shooting percentage.

Therefore, from another point of view, we are in front of an analysis of the pure psychological aspect in the free-throws Basketball shooting. Read more....( PDF doc )


• from the eBA System Clinic discussions:

The following are selected excerpts from the discussions at the eBA System Clinic about this topic "Free-throws Statistical Tracking".


"The concept that the player must make a throwing motion in order for it to be a shooting foul seems to convey no meaning. The player must intend to do so, but if contact prevents the completion of the shot, it can still be a shooting foul.

An example about this concept: A1 is a few feet away from the basket, facing the side of the backboard. When A1 starts what appears to be a try for a goal, he is in front of the backboard and well positioned to score. B1 illegally bumps A1 while A1 is airborne, moving A1 to a position where he is now behind the backboard. A1 (still airborne) now realizes that a shot is impossible from behind the backboard, so he passes the ball to A2, who is standing near the free throw line.

The referee must call a foul on B1 and award two shots to A1, as he was in the act of shooting when the contact happened, on the contrary it would penalize the shooter because he was smart enough to try and continue playing. The fact that he eventually passed the ball is really of no consequence.

Every time the official judges that the player is making a continuous attempt for goal, they get shots, no matter how early in the drive the contact occurs, no matter in the drive is completed or no.

The statistics register is simple: a made foul and a received foul and the result of the free throws, simply. If there was a pass before the action, it would be considered an assist with foul........."



"Possessions had to be charted while watching the game and/or analyzing it post game with the video tape, because three things could end a possession - a turnover, a missed field goal rebounded by the
defense, or arriving to the free throw line. The first two are easily found in the box score. The third is not. Some game analysts uses the following formula to estimate possessions based on the boxscore:

Possessions= FGA - OR + TO + .475(FTA).

The eBA Basketball Statistics Creative Analysis System deny this use and prefer to apply the exact number of "trips" to the line for the account of possessions, and this number only come from the post game video analysis.
Another question about that formula, consider that the raw numbers are based only on actual results. The adjusted figures take into account quality of competition and the site of games, with a slight weight given to more recent games......"



"In the area of "free throw percentage" in order to prove fit for a rate statistic, the following minimums are required in the NBA:

1947-1948= 125 free throws
1949=          150 free throws
1950-1951= 170 free throws
1952-1955= 180 free throws
1956-1959= 190 free throws
1960=          185 free throws
1961-1962= 200 free throws
1963-1966= 210 free throws
1967-1968= 220 free throws
1969=          230 free throws
1970=            70 games or 350 free throw attempts
1971-1972= 350 free throw attempts
1973-1974= 160 free throw attempts
1975-1998= 125 free throws
1999=            76 free throws
2000-=         125 free throws

Career=       1200 free throws"


• from the Case Study Book:

Case Study
Category: Free Throws

Title: Illegal Lane Invasion on a Last Free Throw
Documentation & References: eBA System
Basketball Rule: Rule 9-1-9 Pen 4a
Spanish ~ Español: Invasión Ilegal del Área en un Último Tiro Libre
Code: FT01

Design:

B1 invades the lane against the rules before the final free throw from A1 strikes the rim. A2 at that time invades the lane early, accompanied by A3, both players in marked lane spaces....
Which is the rule of the game and of the statistical registration ?

Conclusion:

eBA Basketball Statistical Tracking=
Violations of A1 and A3 are dismissed. Therefore a new free throw is awarded to A1 due to B1's lane violation.



Case Study
Category: Free Throws

Title: A False Double Foul Case
Documentation & References: Rule
Spanish ~ Español: Un Caso de Doble Falta Falsa
Code: FT02

Design:

A1 is fouled on the arm by B1 as he taps the ball towards the basket following a teammateR17;s field goal attempt bounces off the ring. A1 then comes down violently into B2 who has legal position before the ball passes through the basket.
The second official calls the foul on B1 and the first official calls a player control foul on A-1.

The two officials confer one with the other from the moment that they both have called a foul.
What is the proper ruling and the correct statistical registration ?....

Conclusion:

Commentary= This situation is a false double foul. A1 is fouled in the act of shooting and then perpetrates a player control foul. Because of the player control foul by A1, the goal is declared null.
Since A1 was fouled in the act of shooting, A1 is awarded 2 free throws with no line up on the lane for the reason that the ball will remain dead after the free throws.
The ball is awarded to team B for a throw in on the end line at the spot nearest to where the foul occurred, in this case on the free throw lane line extended spot throw in.

eBA Basketball Statistical Tracking=
We record as following:

1 - the missed FG of A1's teammate;
2 - an Offensive rebound from A1 (the tap);
3 - a made foul against B1;
4 - a received shooting-foul in favour of A1;
5 - the 2 free throws from A1 which ends the Team A's possession; and finally

6 - the player control foul by A1 which begins the new possession for Team B.



Case Study
Category: Free Throws

Title: Basket Interference on a Final Free Throw
Documentation & References: eBA System
Basketball Rule: 9-1-9 Pen 2a; 9-11 Pen 1
Spanish ~ Español: Interferencia Ilegal en un Último Tiro Libre
Code: FT03

Design:

B1 invade the lane in contrary to the rules before that the final free throw from A1 hits the rim and then perpetrates basket interference...
What is the rule of the game and of the statistical registration ?

Conclusion:

Commentary= B1's first infraction does not finish the free throw and is regarded as a "delayed" free-throw violation; the ball is still live: the ball becomes dead when the basket interference happens.

eBA Basketball Statistical Tracking=
A free throw attempted and made scored to A1, and due to this FT results in success. the lane violation is disregarded, the possession ends and the basket interference is recorded in the play-by-play report ( and not as a turnover ...).

Ruling=
Team B will have a throw in from any point outside the baseline.



Case Study
Category: Free Throws

Title: Goaltending at Last Free Throw
Documentation & References: eBA System
Spanish ~ Español: Bloqueo Ilegal en el Último Tiro Libre
Code: FT04

Design:

B1 commits goaltending on A2's final free-throw attempt. Which is the statistical register for B1 ?
Unforced turnover ? ...
Or we only register a free throw made for A2 ?

Conclusion:

Ruling=
The free-throw counts as good and the official calls a technical foul

against B1.

eBA Statistical Tracking=
- Score the free throw for A2;

- Charge B1 with Unforced Turnover technical foul;
Team A shoot two free throws for the technical foul.

A new possession begins for team A when the play is resumed with a throw-in at the division line opposite the scorer's table.



Case Study
Category: Free Throws

Title: Last Free Throw Attempt Missed and Basket
Documentation & References: eBA System
Spanish ~ Español: Último Tiro Libre Errado y Canasta
Code: FT05

Design:

A1 shoots a FTA and the shot hits the rim and bounces on it. A2 goes up and dunks the ball while the ball still is on or above the rim ...
And which is the statistical rule in the case A2 converts the basket after the ball has bounced to the side and it is obvious A1R17; shot will not be successful ...

Conclusion:

eBA System Statistics Fundamentals=
Don't charge a player for a shot from the free-throw line determined by the illegal actions of himself, or any teammates or opponents except when the

shot results in a FTM .

Rule Interpretation=
- in the first case, since the free throw does not end until it is certain that the shot will not be successful, the interference was on A1R17; shot.

- in the second case, since A1R17; shot obviously had missed the game goes on.

eBA Basketball Statistics Tracking=
- in the first case, an interference on A1R17; shot. Do not charge A1 with a FTA . Do not charge A2 with a FGA . Do not credit A2 with an offensive rebound, but do charge A2 with an UNFORCED turnover.
- in the second case, charge A1 with a FTA missed. Credit A2 with an offensive rebound and a FGM, and charge a FGA.



Case Study
Category: Free Throws

Title: Free Throw and Double Foul
Documentation & References: eBA System
Spanish ~ Español: Tiro Libre y Doble Falta
Code: FT06

Design:

Player A1 is awarded two free throws. After the first free throw, a double foul is committed by A2 and B2.
Which is the rule ? Are awarded new free throws ? Which is the stats register ? ...


Conclusion:

eBA System Statistics Fundamentals=
If a double foul is committed during free-throw activity, or if fouls with equal penalties are committed during free-throw activity, the fouls shall be

charged but the penalties shall be cancelled.

Rule Interpretation=
Fouls shall be charged to A2 and B2, after which A1 shall attempt the second free throw and the game shall resume normally as after any last or only free throw.

eBA Basketball Statistics Tracking=
We register the personal fouls against A2 and B2 in the category "Neutrals" ( no advantage taken - "good foul" - nor given - "bad foul" - ) and the free throws from A1.



Case Study
Category: Free Throws

Title: Last Free Throw 2 Seconds to Go
Documentation & References: eBA System
Spanish ~ Español: Último Tiro Libre 2 Segundos del Final
Code: FT07

Design:

A known game situation: 2 seconds to go, 2 points ahead and last free throw.
The player intentionally misses the free-throw according with the
indications from the bench to avoid a complete 2 seconds possession for the
opponent.

He succeed and they win the game. Can this action be registered in such way that we don't "punish" the shooter's Tendex with a -1 because of the missed free throw ? ...

Conclusion:

eBA Basketball Statistics Tracking=
If you are performing the analysis by means of video, and you are not sure about those "bench indications". you have no alternative and must register the missed free-throw.

If you were present at this game, and you heard or saw clearly the coach's indications, you may use the " Team Player " option to register the missed throw, registering this action in the " play-by-play " report.



Case Study
Category:Fouls

Title: Disqualifying Foul and Points Scored
Documentation & References:
eBA System

Spanish ~ Español: Falta Descalificante seguida de Conversión
Code: FO01

Design:

The player A4, in the act of shooting a 3 pointer, he releases the ball and the player B6 punches him with closed hand in his face, the ref whistles and simultaneously sounds the game clock buzzer to indicates the end of the game and the ball goes into the basket, the ref ratify the basket and disqualifies B6, informing about all the events to the game officials .
The question is how many additional free throws the player A4 will shot, one or two free throws ?

Conclusion:

Commentary= According to the
eBA Basketball Statistics Analysis System
when we have a situation of any foul continued by a goal we are speaking about an additional free throw, that's means, the player victim of the flagrant foul will throw a free throw and the game is over ( or goes into an eventual over time ); in this example the player made three points and a possible additional point more.

eBA Basketball Statistical Tracking=
A4, a field goal made for three points + a received foul + a free throw attempt.

B6, a Disqualifying foul made.

There is no registering of a turnover , because there is no another possession in this case.



Case Study
Category:Fouls

Title:Is False Double Foul ?
Documentation & References: eBA System
Spanish ~ Español: Es Doble Falta Falsa ?
Code: FO02

Design:

A1 is fouled on the arm by B1 as he taps the ball towards the basket following a teammateR17;s field goal attempt bounces off the ring. A1 then comes down violently into B2 who has legal position before the ball passes through the basket. The second official calls the foul on B1 and the first official calls a player control foul on A-1.
The two officials confer one with the other from the moment that they both have called a foul. What is the proper ruling and the correct statistical registration ?

Conclusion:

Commentary= According to the eBA Basketball Statistics Analysis System this situation is a false double foul. A1 is fouled in the act of shooting and then perpetrates a player control foul. Because of the player control foul by A1, the goal is declared null.

Since A1 was fouled in the act of shooting, A1 is awarded 2 free throws with no line up on the lane for the reason that the ball will remain dead after the free throws.
The ball is awarded to team B for a throw in on the end line at the spot nearest to where the foul occurred, in this case on the free throw lane line extended spot throw in.

eBA Statistical Tracking=
We register as following:

1 - the missed FG of A1's teammate;
2 - an Offensive rebound from A1 (the tap);
3 - a made foul against B1;
4 - a received shooting-foul in favour of A1;
5 - the 2 free throws from A1 which ends the Team A's possession; and finally

6 - the player control foul by A1 which begins the new possession for Team B.



Case Study
Category:Basketball Fouls

Title:Foul Committed on a Shot
Documentation & References: eBA System
Spanish ~ Español: Falta Cometida en un Lanzamiento
Code: FO03

Design:

If a foul is committed on the shot, ( made or missed ) does the shot attempt
get averaged into that player's field goal percentage?

Conclusion:

Commentaries and eBA Basketball Statistics Tracking=
Two Situations in this case:


1.- If a foul is committed on a shot and the shot is made: the shot attempt GET averaged in the field goal percentage as a "Field Goal Made" and the possession is ended and counted. We have a Foul Made and a Foul Received, too.

2.- If a foul is committed on a shot and the shot is missed: the shot attempt DOES NOT GET averaged in the field goal percentage, from the moment the player receives two or three free-throws from the line and the possession is not ended.

For the possessions count in this situation: if the last free-throw of a serial ( of 2 or 3 ) is made the possession end with a "Up to the Line Made" for shooter's team ( see Global Basketball Encyclopedia for the terminology ).

If the last free throw of a serial ( of 2 or 3 ) is missed, the possession end with a Defensive Rebound. An Offensive Rebound gives, we know, a second chance option. Foul Made and Foul received are counted, too.



Case Study
Category:Fouls

Title:Pushing a teammate who makes foul
Documentation & References: eBA System
Spanish ~ Español: Empujando a un jugador quien comete la falta
Code: FO05

Design:

An offensive player cross the court passing the lane through, a defender make contact with him but the referee calls the foul on another defensive player saying that this player pushed the teammate who contacted the offensive player.

Is it an Official' error ? Is not this case a foul on the player who makes the first contact... that's means the player who pushes the opponent against the rules ?

Conclusion:

Commentary= At the beginning the rules were as this case question relates: pushing a
teammate in order to make him to contact an opponent, the player who pushed was responsible of the foul. Actually, who makes the contact is credited with the foul.

eBA Statistical Tracking=
The eBA System qualification of the foul will be "neutral" ( not "good" neither "bad" foul ) because he was not the responsible for the contact.




• Related Sources:

A Biomechanical Analysis by Skill Level
of Free Throw Shooting in Basketball
by Jackie L. Hudson


Excerpt from the study which complete PDF version may be read here.

Free throw shooting in Basketball is a task which falls into two broad categories of sports skills. First, it is a task of accuracy. Second, it requires submaximal velocity for most populations of players. Because of the submaximal velocity demands, there are endless combinations of segmental contributions in conjunction with numerous projection angles and velocities which can result in shots which directly or indirectly fall through the basket.

In addition to the segmental actions which contribute to shooting performance, there may be other actions which are extraneous to performance. These non-related characteristics can be termed style. Since the identification of characteristics which are consistently employed by skilled performers and conspicuously absent in poor performers may lead to improved teaching and coaching, this study was conducted to analyze selected biomechanical parameters of free throw shooting by players of varying skill......"

"......Though the projection characteristics of the high skill group appear to be distinguished from the low and moderate skill groups, the variability within each group was high. Thus, further investigation in this area is needed.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
"..... As expected, several subjects exhibited characteristics which were stylistic in nature. Members of each skill group held the ball behind the head at some time in the preparatory phase of the shot. One member of the high skill group used extreme hip and knee flexion in the preliminary portion of the shot. ....."

CONCLUSIONS
1. Greater stability ( i.e., balanced center of gravity and vertical trunk inclination ) is related to higher skill.
2. A greater ratio of height of release to standing height is related to higher skill.
3. Angle and velocity of projection, taken independently, are not related to skill level."


• Related Articles:

Rule No. 10 - Violations and Penalties - Section I-Free Throw in: NBA.com

Measuring Offensive Efficiency, by Kevin Pelton in: Hoops World.com


• Related Book:

Free Throw : 7 Steps to Success at the Free Throw Line
   Free Throw: 7 Steps to Success at the Free Throw Line
   By: Dr. Tom Amberry

   Book Description
   On November 15, 1993, a white-haired, 72-year-old gentleman named Dr. Amberry
   stepped up to the free throw line and into the Guinness Book of World Records by sinking
   2,750 shots in a row. He ended his 12-hour streak without a miss, stopping only because
   they had to close the gym for the night....

   He was in his seventies when he originally sank 2,750 consecutive free throws. Considering
   the fact that this was achieved at such an advanced age this has to be rated as one of the
   greatest athletic feats of all time.

In 'Free Throw', he reveals his secrets. Beginning with the proper mechanics of the shot, he then explains the importance of the mental game and shares his techniques to help players stay on target even while under pressure. Combining these mental and physical elements, he presents a unique and straightforward 7-step method that teaches readers how to become a 90% free throw shooter. The free throw is the Achilles heel of the Basketball player -- many players are great from the floor but lousy at the line. 'Free Throw' is the only book to address this important skill. Clearly written, with principles that are easy to put into practice, it is an indispensable manual for all Basketball players and coaches.

About the Author
Dr. Tom Amberry was a podiatrist for 40 years, publishing many articles about various aspects of his profession. On November 15, 1993, following his retirement, Dr. Amberry shot his way into /The Guinness Book of Records/ by sinking 2,750 free throws in a row. Since then he has become internationally known as, in the words of one announcer, "the best free throw shooter ever to touch a Basketball."

Dr. Amberry travels constantly, teaches shooting clinics and makes frequent radio and TV appearances. He has been featured on NBC Nightly News with Tom Brokaw, ESPN, Dateling, Day One, The Late Show with David Letterman, NBA Inside Stuff, and ABCs World News Tonight.

On his college Basketball team, Tom Amberry was twice the nation's high scorer. He was an All-American two years in a row, turning down a two-year, no-cut contract with the Lakers to pursue a career in medicine.

Dr. Tom Amberry has written one of the best books on the psychological and physical mechanics analysis of Basketball free throw shooting. Unlike some instructors he doesn't over-intellectualize the free throw shot: which creates the impairment of "analysis paralysis".

This nonfiction book is full of good advice for anyone at any level who wants to increase his or her free throw percentage.

No matter what your skill level from beginner to pro, this book will help you to be a better free throw shooter. When you gain confidence in your free throws you gain confidence in your game. A must have book for youth coaches trying to teach fundamentals. This book is probably the best book you can ever buy for improving your shooting.
  moreFree Throw : 7 Steps to Success at the Free Throw Lineinfo


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Created by azarober. Last Modification: Monday 30 of January, 2012 10:51:24 UTC by azarober. (Version 7)

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Estudio Observacional de la Competición en Baloncesto por Miguel Angel Gomez Ruano


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Los 5 DVDs de
Entrenamiento del Baloncesto
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•  2 ~ Roy Williams: Acceso Total a las Prácticas del North Carolina Basketball 3-Pack DVD con Roy Williams

•  3 ~ Larry Brown: De la Segunda Ola del Ataque Rápido al Ataque en Medio Campo con Larry Brown, SMU Head Coach

•  4 ~ Bob Hurley: Acceso Total a las Prácticas de Baloncesto del St. Anthony HS 3-Pack DVD con Bob Hurley

•  5 ~ Sherri Coale: La Serie de Entrenamiento del Baloncesto Femenino de la AAU 7 DVDs por Sherri Coale



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